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(Майнонг) Routley (Sylvan), Richard / Раутли (Силвэн), Ричард - Exploring Meinong’s Jungle and Beyond / Разведка майнонговых джунглей и окрестностей

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(Майнонг) Routley (Sylvan), Richard / Раутли (Силвэн), Ричард - Exploring Meinong’s Jungle and Beyond / Разведка майнонговых джунглей и окрестностей
Exploring Meinong’s Jungle and Beyond. An investigation of noneism and the theory of items
Разведка майнонговых джунглей и окрестностей. Исследования в ничевизме и теории штуковин
Год издания: 1980
Автор: Routley (Sylvan), Richard / Раутли (Силвэн), Ричард
Жанр или тематика: Монографированный сборник статей
Издательство: Australian National University
ISBN: 0 909596 36 0
Серия: Department of Philosophy. Monograph series
Язык: Английский
Формат: DjVu
Качество: Отсканированные страницы + слой распознанного текста
Интерактивное оглавление: Да
Количество страниц: 1062
Описание: Ключевая работа, подвергшая глубокой критике Теорию предметов Майнонга и задавшая направление «ничевизма» (noneism)
и «Теории Штуковин» (Theory of Items) в логике и онтологии XX в.
Кстати, в приложении там очень подробный список литературы по майнонговым делам вплоть до конца семидесятых. Раутли очень дотошен, и ,по крайней мере на немецком и английском, она, скорее всего, близка к исчерпывающей.
Примеры страниц



Код:
PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 0
PART I: OLDER ESSAYS REVISED 0
CHAPTER 1: EXPLORING MEINONG'S JUNGLE AND BEYOND. I. ITEMS AND DESCRIPTIONS 1
  I. Noneism and the theory of items 1
   §1. The point of the enterprise and the philosophical value of a theory of objects 7
  II. Basic theses and their prima facie defence 13
   §2. Significance and content theses 14
   §3. The Independence Thesis and rejection of the Ontological Assumption 21
   §4. Defence of the Independence Thesis 28
   §5. The Characterisation Postulate and the Advanced Independence Thesis 45
   §6. The fundamental error: the Reference Theory 52
   §7. Second factor alternatives to the Reference Theory and their transcendence 62
  III. The need for revision of classical logic 73
   §8. The inadequacy of classical quantification logic, and of free logic alternatives 75
   §9. The choice of a neutral quantification logic, and its objectual interpretation 79
   §10. The consistency of neutral logic and the inconsistency objection to impossibilia, the extension of neutral logic by predicate negation and the resolution of apparent inconsistency, and the incompleteness objection to nonentities and partial indeterminacy 83
   §11. The inadequacy of classical identity theory; and the removal of intensional paradoxes and of objections to quantifying into intensional sentence contexts 96
   §12. Russell's theories of descriptions and proper names, and the acclaimed elimination of discourse about what does not exist117
   §13. The Sixth Way: Quine's proof that God exists 132
   §14. A brief critique of some more recent accounts of proper names and descriptions: free description theories, rigid designators, and causal theories of proper names; and cleaning the way for a commonsense neutral account 137
  IV. Stages of logical reconstruction: evolution of an intensional logic of items, with some applications en route 165
   §15. The initial stage: sentential and zero-order logics 165
   §16. Neutral quantification logic 174
   §17. Extensions of first-order theory to cater for the theory of objects: existence, possibility and identity, predicate negation, choice operators, modalisation and worlds semantics 180
    1. (a) Existence is a property: however (b) it is not an ordinary (characterising) property 180
    2. 'Exists' as a logical predicate: first stage 187
    3. The predicate 'is possible', and possibility-restricted quantifiers Π and Σ 190
    4. Predicate negation and its applications 192
    5. Descriptors, neutral choice operators, and the extensional elimination of quantifiers 197
    6. Identity determinates, and extensionality 200
    7. Worlds semantics: introduction and basic explanation 202
    8. Worlds semantics: quantified modal logics as working examples 207
    9. Reworking the extensions of quantificational logic in the modal framework 214
    10. Beyond the first-order modalised framework: initial steps 223
   §18. The neutral reformulation of mathematics and logic, and second stage logic as basic example. The need for, and shape of, enlargements upon the second stage 223
    1. Second-order logics and theories, and a substitutional solution of their interpretation problem 225
    2. Substantive second-order logics with abstraction principles 228
    3. Definitional extensions of 2Q and enlarged 2Q: Leibnitz identity, extensionality and predicate coincidence and identity 230
    4. Attributes, instantiation, and λ-conversion 232
    5. Axiomatic additions to the second-order framework: specific object axioms as compared with infinity axioms and choice axioms 234
    6. Choice functors in enlarged second-order theory 235
    7. Modalisation of the theories 236
   §19. On the possibility and existence of objects: second stage 238
    1. Item possibility: consistency and possible existence 239
    2. Item existence 244
   §20. Identity and distinctness, similarity and difference and functions 248
   §21. The more substantive logic: Characterisation Postulates, and other special terms and axioms of logics of items 253
    1. Settling truth-values: the extent of neutrality of a logic 253
    2. Problems with an unrestricted Characterisation Postulate 255
    3. A detour: interim ways of getting by without restrictions 256
    4. Presentational reliability 258
    5. Characterisation Postulates for bottom order objects; and the extent and variety of such objects 260
    6. Characterising, constitutive, or nuclear predicates 264
    7. Entire and reduced relations and predicates 268
    8. Further extending Characterisation Postulates 269
    9. Russell vs. Meinong yet again 272
    10. Strategic differences between classical logic and the alternative logic canvassed 273
    11. The contrast extended to theoretical linguistics 274
   §22. Descriptions, especially definite and indefinite descriptions 275
    1. General descriptions and descriptions generally 275
    2. The basic context-invariant account of definite descriptions 277
    3. A comparison with Russell's theory of definite descriptions 280
    4. Derivation of minimal free description logic and of qualified Carnap schemes 282
    5. An initial comparison with Russell's theory of indefinite descriptions 283
    6. Other indefinite descriptions: 'some', 'an' and 'any' 284
    7. Further comparisons with Russell's theory of indefinite and definite descriptions, and how scope is essential to avoid inconsistency 285
    8. The two (the) round squares: pure objects and contextually determined uniqueness 286
    9. Solutions to Russell's puzzles for any theory as to denoting 287
   §23. Widening logical horizons: relevance, entailment, and the road, to paraconsistency, and a logical treatment of contradicting and paradoxical objects 288
    1. The importance of being relevant 289
    2. Zero-order and quantified relevant logics: syntax and semantics 290
    3. Object-theoretic elaboration of relevant logic 292
    4. Relevant paraconsistent logics, and radically contradictory and paradoxical objects 293
    5. Problems in applying a fully relevant resolution in formalising the theory of items; and quasi- relevantism 294
    6. On limits to postulation and its equivalents, e.g. definitional introduction 296
    7. Living with inconsistency 297
   §24. Beyond quantified intensional logics: neutral structure theory, free λ-categorial languages and logics, and universal semantics 298
    1. A canonical form for natural languages such as English is provided by λ-categorial languages? Problems and some initial solutions 306
    2. Description of the λ-categorial language L 309
    3. Logics on language L 311
    4. The semantical framework for a logic S on L 313
    5. The soundness and completeness of S on L 316
    6. Widening the framework: towards a truly universal semantics 320
    7. Allowing for context-dependence in the semantical evaluation 326
    8. Applying the semantical theory to yield semantical notions: the two-tier theory 326
    9. The problem of distinguishing real models 330
    10. Semantical definitions of core, extensional notions: truth and satisfaction 333
    11. Semantical vindication of the designative theory of meaning 335
    12. Kemeny's interpretations, and semantical definitions for crucial modal notions 337
    13. Normal frameworks, and semantical definitions for first-degree entailmental notions 339
    14. Wider frameworks, and semantical definitions for synonymy notions 340
    15. Solutions to puzzles concerning propositions, truth and belief 342
    16. Logical oversights in the theory: dynamic or evolving languages and logics 344
    17. Other philosophical corollaries, and the semantical metamorphosis of metaphysics 346
  V. Further evolution of the theory of items 347
   §25. On the types of objects 348
   §26. Acquaintance with and epistemic access to nonentities; characterisations, and the source book theory 352
   §27. On the variety of noneisms 356
CHAPTER 2: EXPLORING MEINONG'S JUNGLE AND BEYOND. II. EXISTENCE AND IDENTITY WHEN TIMES CHANGE 361
   §1. Existence is existence now 361
   §2. Enlarging on some of the chronological inadequacies of classical logic and its metaphysical basis, the Reference Theory 364
   §5. Change and identity over time; Heracleitean and Parmenidean problems for chronological logics 368
   §4. Developing a nonmetrical neutral chronological logic 374
   §5. Further corollaries of noneism for the philosophy of time 394
    1. Reality questions: the reality of time? 395
    2. Against the subjectivity of time: initial points 396
    3. The future is not real 397
    4. Alleged relativistic difficulties about the present time and as to tense 399
    5. Time, change and alternative worlds 400
    6. Limitations on statements about the future, especially as to naming objects and making predictions 402
    7. Fatalism and alternative futures 405
PART II: NEWER ESSAYS 410
CHAPTER 3: ON WHAT THERE ISN’T 411
CHARTER 4: FURTHER OBJECTIONS TO THE THEORY OF ITEMS DISARMED 427
  §1. The theory of objects is inconsistent, absurd; Carnap's objections, and Hinton’s case against Meinongianism 427
  §2. The attack on nonexistent objects., and alleged puzzles about what such objects could be 433
  §3. The accusation of platonism; being, types of existence, and the conditions on existence 435
  §4. Subsistence objections 442
  §5. The defects of nonentities; the problem of relations, and indeterminacy 445
  §3. Nonentities are mere shadows, facades, verbal simulacra; appeal to the formal mode 447
  §7. Tooley's objection that the claim that there are nonexistent objects answering to objects of thought leads to contradictions 450
  §8. Williams' argument that fatal difficulties beset Meincngian pure objects 453
  §9. Further objections based on quantification and on features of truth-definitions 456
  §10. Findlay's objection that nonentities are lawless, chaotic, unscientific 451
  §11. Grossmann's case against Meinong's theory of objects 459
  §12. Mish'alani's criticism of Meinongian theories 470
  §13. A theory of impossible objects is bound to be inconsistent: and objections based on rival theories of descriptions 473
  §14. Identity again: Lambert's challenge and how Quine hits back 477
  §15. Further objections based on theories of descriptions 482
  §16. The charge that a theory of items is unnecessary: the inadequacy of rival referential programmes 486
CHAPTER 5: THREE MEINONGS 489
  §1. The mythological Meinong again, and further Oxford and North American misrepresentation 489
  §2. The Characterisation Postulate further considered, and some drawbacks of the consistent position 497
  §3. Interlude on the historical Meinong: evidence that Meincng intended his theory to be a consistent one, and some counter-evidence 499
  §4. The paraaonsistent position, and forms of the Characterisation Postulate in the case of abstract objects 503
  §5. The bottom order Characterisation Postulate again, and triviality arguments 506
  §6. Characterising predicates and elementary and atomic propositional functions, and the arguments for consistency and nontriviality of theory 510
CHAPTER 6: THE THEORY OF OBJECTS AS COMMONSENSE 519
  §1. Nonreductionism and the Idiosyncratic Platitude 519
  §2. The structure of commonsense theories and common- sense philosophy 523
  §3. Axioms of commonsense, and major theses 527
  §4. Ho limitation theses, sorts of Characterisation Postulates, and proofs of commonsense 529
   1. No limitation (or Freedom) theses 529
   2. Characterisation (or Assumption) Postulates 532
CHAPTER 7: THE PROBLEMS OF FICTION AND FICTIONS 537
  §1. Fiction, and some of its distinctive semantical features 539
  §2. Statemental logics of fiction: initial inadequacies in orthodoxy again 546
  §3. The main philosophical inheritance: paraphrastic and elliptical theories of fiction 551
  §4. Redesigning elliptical theories, as contextual theories 563
  §5. Elaborating contextual, and naive, theories to meet objections; and rejection of pure contextual theories 567
  §6. Integration of contextual and ordinary naive theories within the theory of items 573
  §7. Residual difficulties with the qualified naïve theory: relational puzzles and fictional paradoxes 577
   1. Relational puzzles 577
   2. Fictional paradoxes and their dissolution 588
  §8. The objects of fiction: fictions and their syntax, semantics and problematics 590
   1. Common quantificational and second-order logics of fiction 590
   2. Avoiding reduced existence commitments and essentialist paradoxes 592
   3. Transworld identity explained 593
   4. Duplicate objects characterised 595
  §9. Synopsis and clarification of the integrated theory: s-predicates and further elaboration 595
  §10. The extent of fiction, imagination and the like 598
   1. "Fictions" in the philosophical sense 598
   2. Imaginary objects, their features and their variety: initial theory 599
   3. Works of the fine arts and crafts, and their objects 600
   4. Types of media and literary fiction 602
   5. Fictional objects versus theoretical objects, and the mistake of fictionalism 603
   6. The incompleteness and "fictionality" of the theory of fictions advanced 604
CHAPTER 8: THE IMPORTANCE OF NOT EXISTING 607
  §1. Further classical attempts to deal with discourse about the nonexistent: Davidson's paratactic analysis 607
  §2. The transparency of neutral semantics 613
  §3. Proposed reductions of nonentities to intensional objects, such as properties and complexes thereof; and some of their inadequacies615
  §4. Theoretical science without ontological commitments 619
  §5. The metalogical trap, and who gets trapped 620
  §6. Alleged grounds for preferring a classical theory 621
  §7. The importance of the nonexistent in accounting for the existent 625
  §8. Illustration 1: Universals. Nonexistence and the general universal problem 627
  §9. Illustration 1 continued: Neutral universal theory, and neutral resolution of the problems of transcendental and immanent theories636
  §10. Illustration 2: Perception 649
  §11. Other illustrations: value theory, the philosophy of law, the philosophy of mind, … 678
  §12. The commonsense account of belief: A recapitulation of main theses, and an elaboration of some of these theses 684
  §13. Corollaries for the logic and ontology of natural language 693
CHAPTER 9: THE MEANING OF EXISTENCE 697
  §1. The basic problem of ontology: criteria for what exists? 697
  §2. GROUP 0: Holistic criteria 704
  §3. GROUP 1: Spatiotemporality and its variants 707
  §4. GROUP 2: Intensional criteria 714
  §5. GROUPS 3 and 4: and the Brentano principle improved 715
  §6. GROUP 5: Completeness and determinacy criteria 720
  §7. GROUP 6: Qualified determinacy and genetic criteria 126
  §8. Convergence of the criteria that remain 730
  §9. A corollary: the nonexistence of abstractions. In particular, (abstract) classes do not exist 732
  §10. Further corollaries: the rejection of empiricism in all its varieties, as false 740
  §11. An interlude on the destruction of mathematics by scientific realism 750
  §12. The roots of individualism, the strengthened Reference Theory of traditional logical theory, and the rejection of individual reductionism and holistic reductionism, and of analysis and holism as general methods in philosophy 751
  §13. Emerging world hypotheses: qualified naturalism, qualified nominalism and the rejection of physicalism and materialism 755
CHAPTER 10: THE IMPORTANCE OF NONEXISTENT OBJECTS AND OF INTENSIONALITY IN MATHEMATICS AND THE THEORETICAL SCIENCES 769
  §1. Is mathematics extensional? 769
  §2. Pure mathematics is an existence-free science 779
  §3. Science is not extensional either 781
  §4. Theoretical science is concerned, essentially, with what does not exist 789
CHAPTER 11: RUDIMENTS OF NONE 1ST PHILOSOPHIES OF MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE 791
  §1. Outlines of a noneist philosophy of mathematics 792
  §2. Noneist reorientation of the foundations and philosophy of science 805
  §3. A noneist framework for a commonsense account of science 813
  §4. Rejection of the new idealism and of modern conventionalism and relativism in the philosophy of science 822
CHAPTER 12: HOW THE THEORY ELABORATED DIFFERS FROM OTHER THEORIES OF OBJECTS IN ITS THESES AND OBJECTIVES 833
  §1. Reid, commonsense, and the theory of objects 835
  §2. How the theory of items differs from Meinong's theory of objects: a preliminary sketch 851
   1. Subsistence 851
   2. Hierarchies of being 852
   3. Higher order objects, and exorcism of the kinds of being doctrine 853
   4. Objectives 855
   5. Aussersein, and the principle of indifference of objects as such to existence 856
   6. The modal moment, and the semantical factor, formalised? 860
   7. Restrictions on the Characterisation Postulate versus restrictions on freedom of assumption principles 863
   8. Did Meinong sell out? 864
   9. Was Meinong committed to a reduction of objects? 865
   10. The bounds of objecthood: paradoxical and contradictory objects 867
   11. Identity and essentialism 868
   12. The excess of intermediaries 868
   13. Referential considerations at work elsewhere in Meinong's philosophy 869
  §3. The failure of modem direct reductions of nonentities to surrogate objects 871
  §4. The new Lockeanism: theories of Castaneda, Parsons and others 876
   1. Locke's representation of objects in terms of complex ideas 876
   2. The new representations of objects in terms of sets of properties 879
   3. Some remarks on Castaneda's theory of 'Thinking and the structure of the world 880
   4. Rapaport's case for two modes of predication and two types of objects 883
   5. Parsons 1974 to 1978: transition from reductionism 885
  §5. The Noneist Reduction of Reductionisms and Repudiationof Mediatorial Entities 887
  §6. The noneist and radical noneist progranmes 890
PREFACE TO THE APPENDIX 892
APPENDIX I: ULTRALOGIC AS UNIVERSAL? 893
§1. A universal logic? 893
§2. The relevant critique of extant logics, and especially of classical logic 898
§3. The choice of foundations, and the ultramodal programme 900
§4. The impact of ultralogic on philosophical problems: ultralogic as a universal paradox solvent 903
§5. A dialectical diagnosis of logical and semantical paradoxes 906
§6. Dialectical set theory 911
§7. The problem of extensionality and of relevant identity 919
§8. The development of dialectical set theory; reconstructing Cantor's theory of sets 924
§9. Ultramodal mathematics: arithmetic 927
§10. Another question of adequacy: consistency arguments 931
§11. Content and semantic information 935
§12. Ultramodal probability logic 946
§13. Ultramodal quantum theory 955
§14. The way ahead 959
§15. References for the Appendix 960
BIBLIOGRAPHY 963
Works referred to in the text 963
SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY: On Meinong and the Theory of Objects 983
INDEX 991



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