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PMI - Business Analysis for Practitioners A Practice Guide / Бизнес Анализ для Практикующих: Практическое Руководство

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PMI - Business Analysis for Practitioners A Practice Guide / Бизнес Анализ для Практикующих: Практическое Руководство
Business Analysis for Practitioners A Practice Guide
Бизнес Анализ для Практикующих: Практическое Руководство
Год издания: 2015
Автор: PMI
Жанр или тематика: IT, Business Analysis
Издательство: PMI
ISBN: 978-1-62825-069-5
Язык: Английский
Формат: PDF
Качество: Издательский макет или текст (eBook)
Интерактивное оглавление: Да
Количество страниц: 227
Описание: Business Analysis for Practitioners: A Practice Guide provides practical resources to tackle the project-related issues associated with requirements and business analysis—and addresses a critical need in the industry for more guidance in this area. The practice guide begins by describing the work of business analysis. It identifies the tasks that are performed, in addition to the essential knowledge and skills needed to effectively perform business analysis on programs and projects.
Другими словами, это взгляд PMI (создателей Project Management Body of Knowledge) на область Бизнес/Системного анализа, аналог книги BABoK. Специалисты считают, что в ней более узкая предметная область - это и понятно, 200 страниц вместо 600.
Примеры страниц

PREFACE XIV
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Purpose of this Practice Guide 1
1.2 Need for this Practice Guide 1
1.3 PMI's Increased Focus on Business Analysis 2
1.4 Intended Audience for the Guide 3
1.5 What is Business Analysis? 3
1.6 Who Performs Business Analysis? 4
1.6.1 Skillset and Expertise Needed for the Business Analysis Role 4
1.6.2 How Organizations Implement Business Analysis 5
1.6.3 The Relationship Between the Project Manager, Business Analyst, and Other Roles 5
1.6.4 The Need to Build the Relationships 6
1.7 Definition of Requirement 6
1.7.1 Who has the Responsibility for the Requirements? 6
1.7.2 Requirement Types 7
1.8 The Structure ofthe Practice Guide 8
1.8.1 Section 2 on Needs Assessment 8
1.8.2 Section 3 on Business Analysis Flanning 8
1.8.3 Section 4 on Requirements Elicitation and Analysis 9
1.8.4 Section 5 on Traceability and Monitoring 9
1.8.5 Section 6 on Solution Evaluation 9
2 NEEDS ASSESSMENT 11
2.1 Overview ofthis Section 11
2.2 Why Perform Needs Assessments 11
2.3 Identify Problem or Opportunity 12
2.3.1 Identify Stakeholders 12
2.3.2 Investigate the Problem or Opportunity 13
2.3.3 Gather Relevant Data to Evaluate the Situation 14
2.3.4 Draft the Situation Statement ..-14
2.3.5 Obtain Stakeholder Approval for the Situation Statement 15
2.4 Assess Current State ofthe Organization 15
2.4.1 Assess Organizational Goals and Objectives 16
2.4.1.1 Goals and Objectives 16
2.4.1.2 SMART Goals and Objectives 16
2.4.2 SWOT Analysis 18
2.4.3 Relevant Criteria 19
2.4.4 Perform Root Cause Analysis on the Situation 20
2.4.4.1 FiveWhys 20
2.4.4.2 Cause-and-Effect Diagrams 20
2.4.5 Determine Required Capabilities Needed to Address the Situation 25
2.4.5.1 Capability Table 25
2.4.5.2 Affinity Diagram 25
2.4.5.3 Benchmarking 26
2.4.6 Assess Current Capabilities of the Organization 27
2.4.7 Identify Gaps in Organizational Capabilities 28
2.5 Recommend Action to Address Business Needs 29
2.5.1 Include a High-Level Approach for Adding Capabilities 29
2.5.2 Provide Alternative Options for Satisfying the Business Need 29
2.5.3 Identify Constraints, Assumptions, and Risks for Each Option 30
2.5.3.1 Constraints 30
2.5.3.2 Assumptions 30
2.5.3.3 Risks 30
2.5.4 Assess Feasibility and Organizational Impacts of Each Option 30
2.5.4.1 Operational Feasibility 31
2.5.4.2 Technology/System Feasibility 31
2.5.4.3 Cost-Effectiveness Feasibility 31
2.5.4.4 Time Feasibility 32
2.5.4.5 Assess Factors 32
2.5.5 Recommend the Most Viable Option 32
2.5.5.1 Weighted Ranking 32
2.5.6 Conduct Cost-Benefit Analysis for Recommended Option 34
2.5.6.1 Payback Period (PBP) 34
2.5.6.2 Return on Investment (ROI) 34
2.5.6.3 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) 34
2.5.6.4 Net Present Value (NPV) 34
2.6 Assemble the Business Gase 35
2.6.1 Value of the Business Gase 36
3 BUSINESS ANALYSIS FLANNING 37
3.1 Overview of this Section 37
3.2 The Importance of Business Analysis Flanning 37
3.2.1 Rationale 38
3.2.2 Business Analysis Flanning and Project Management Flanning 38
3.3 Conduct or Refine the Stakeholder Analysis 39
3.3.1 Techniques for Identifying Stakeholders 39
3.3.1.1 Brainstorming 39
3.3.1.2 Organizational Charts 40
3.3.2 Determine Stakeholder Characteristics 40
3.3.2.1 Attitüde 40
3.3.2.2 Complexity 41
3.3.2.3 Culture 42
3.3.2.4 Experience 43
3.3.2.5 Level of Influence 43
3.3.2.6 Location and Availability 43
3.3.3 Techniques for Grouping or Analyzing Stakeholders 44
3.3.3.1 Job Analysis 44
3.3.3.2 Persona Analysis 45
3.3.4 Assemble the Stakeholder Analysis Results 45
3.4 the Business Analysis Plan 46
3.4.1 Business Analysis Plan vs. Requirements Management Plan 46
3.4.2 What to Include in the Business Analysis Plan 47
3.4.2.1 Determining the Proper Level of Detail 48
3.4.3 Understand the Project Context 48
3.4.4 Understand How the Project Life Cycle Infiuences Flanning
Decisions 49
3.4.5 Ensure the Team is Trained on the Project Life Cycle 51
3.4.6 Leverage Past Experiences When Flanning 51
3.4.6.1 Lessons Learned 51
3.4.6.2 Retrospectives 51
3.4.7 Plan for Elicitation 53
3.4.7.1 Strategies for Sequencing Elicitation Activities 54
3.4.8 Plan for Analysis 54
3.4.9 Define the Requirements Prioritization Process 55
3.4.10 Define the Traceability Approach 56
3.4.11 Define the Communication Approach 57
3.4.12 Define the Decision-Making Process 58
3.4.13 Define the Requirements Verification and Validation Processes 58
3.4.14 Define the Requirements Change Process 59
3.4.15 Define the Solution Evaluation Process 60
3.5 Plan the Business Analysis Work 61
3.5.1 Determine Who Plans the Business Analysis Effort 61
3.5.2 Build the Business Analysis Work Plan 61
3.5.2.1 Identify the Deliverables 61
3.5.2.2 Determine the Tasks and Activities 62
3.5.2.3 Determine the Timing and Sequencing of Tasks 63
3.5.2.4 Determine the Roles and Responsibilities 63
3.5.2.5 Identifying the Resources 64
3.5.2.6 Estimate the Work 64
3.5.3 Assemble the Business Analysis Work Plan 65
3.5.4 Document the Rationa le for the Business Analysis Approach 67
3.5.5 Review the Business Analysis Plan with Key Stakeholders 67
3.5.6 Obtain Approval of the Business Analysis Plan 68
4. REQUIREMENTS ELICITATION AND ANALYSIS 69
4.1 Purpose of this Section 69
4.2 What it Means to Elicit Information 69
4.2.1 Elicitation Is More than Requirements Collection or Gathering 69
4.2.2 Importance of Eliciting Information 70
4.3 Plan for Elicitation 70
4.3.1 Develop the Elicitation Plan 71
4.3.1.1 Rinding Information 71
4.3.1.2 Techniques for Eliciting Information 71
4.3.1.3 Sequencing the Elicitation Activities 71
4.4 Prepare for Elicitation 72
4.4.1 Determine the Objectives 72
4.4.2 Determine the Participants 72
4.4.3 Determine the Questions for the Session 73
4.5 Conduct Elicitation Activities 73
4.5.1 Introduction 74
4.5.2 Body 74
4.5.2.1 Types of Questions 74
4.5.2.2 How to Ask the "Right" Questions 75
4.5.2.3 Listening 75
4.5.3 Close 75
4.5.4 Follow-Up 76
4.5.5 Elicitation Techniques 77
4.5.5.1 Brainstorming 77
4.5.5.2 Document Analysis 77
4.5.5.3 Facilitated Workshops 78
4.5.5.4 Focus Croups 80
4.5.5.5 Interviews 80
4.5.5.6 Observation 82
4.5.5.7 Prototyping 83
4.5.5.8 Questionnaires and Surveys 85
4.6 Document Outputs from Elicitation Activities 86
4.7 Complete Elicitation 86
4.8 Elicitation Issues and Challenges 87
4.9 Analyze Requirements 88
4.9.1 Plan for Analysis 88
4.9.1.1 Analysis Defined 88
4.9.1.2 Thinking Ahead about Analysis 89
4.9.1.3 What to Analyze 89
4.10 Model and Refine Requirements 89
4.10.1 Description of Models 89
4.10.2 Purpose of Models 90
4.10.3 Categories of Models 90
4.10.4 Selection of Models 90
4.10.5 Use Models to Refine Requirements 91
4.10.6 Modeling Languages 91
4.10.7 Scope Models 92
4.10.7.1 Goal Model and Business Objective Model 92
4.10.7.2 Ecosystem Map 94
4.10.7.3 Context Diagram 95
4.10.7.4 Feature Model 96
4.10.7.5 Use Gase Diagram 97
4.10.8 Process Models 98
4.10.8.1 Process Flow 99
4.10.8.2 Use Gase 100
4.10.8.3 User Story 101
4.10.9 Rule Models 104
4.10.9.1 Business Rules Catalog 104
4.10.9.2 Decision Tree and Decision Table 105
4.10.10 Data Models 106
4.10.10.1 Entity Relationship Diagram 107
4.10.10.2 Data Flow Diagrams 108
4.10.10.3 Data Dictionary 108
4.10.10.4 State Table and State Diagram 110
4.10.11 Interface Models 111
4.10.11.1 Report Table 111
4.10.11.2 System Interface Table 114
4.10.11.3 User Interface Flow 114
4.10.11.4 Wireframes and Dispiay-Action-Response 115
4.11 Document the Solution Requirements 118
4.11.1 Why Documentation is Important 118
4.11.2 Business Requirements Document 118
4.11.3 The Solution Documentation 119
4.11.3.1 Requirements 119
4.11.3.2 Categorization 120
4.11.4 Requirements Specification 120
4.11.4.1 Documenting Assumptions 121
4.11.4.2 Documenting Constraints 121
4.11.5 Guidelines for Writing Requirements 122
4.11.5.1 Functional Requirements 122
4.11.6 Prioritizing Requirements 128
4.11.6.1 Prioritization Scheines 128
4.11.7 Technical Requirements Specification 129
4.11.8 Documenting with Use Gases 130
4.11.9 Documenting with User Stories 130
4.11.10 Backlog Items 130
4.12 Validate Requirements 130
4.12.1 The Concept of Continual Confirmation 131
4.12.2 Requirements Walkthrough 131
4.13 Verify Requirements 132
4.13.1 Peer Review 132
4.13.2 Inspection 133
4.14 Approval Sessions 133
4.15 Resolve Requirements-Related Conflicts 134
4.15.1 Delphi 134
4.15.2 Multivoting 135
4.15.3 Weighted Ranking 135
5. TRACEABILITY AND MONITORING 137
5.1 Overview of this Section 137
5.2 Traceability 138
5.2.1 What is Traceability? 138
5.2.2 Benefits of Tracing Requirements 139
5.2.3 The Traceability Matrix 139
5.2.3.1 Requirements Attributes 140
5.2.3.2 Traceability Matrix Hierarchy 142
5.3 Relationships and Dependencies 142
5.3.1 Subsets 142
5.3.2 Implementation Dependency 143
5.3.3 Benefit or Value Dependency 143
5.4 Approving Requirements 143
5.4.1 Work Authorization System 143
5.4.2 Approval Levels 144
5.5 Baselining Approved Requirements 145
5.5.1 What is a Requirements Baseline? 145
5.5.2 Relationship of Requirements Baseline, Product Scope,
and Project Scope 145
5.5.3 Maintaining the Product Backlog 146
5.6 Monitoring Requirements Using a Traceability Matrix 146
5.6.1 Benefits of Using Traceability to Monitor Requirements 146
5.7 The Requirements Life Cycle 148
5.8 Managing Changes to Requirements 148
5.8.1 Change Management as it Relates to Business Analysis 149
5.8.2 Change Control Tools and Techniques 150
5.8.2.1 Configuration Management System (CMS) 151
5.8.2.2 Version Control System (VCS) 151
5.8.3 Impact Analysis 151
5.8.3.1 Impact on the Requirements Baseline 152
5.8.3.2 Impact on whether a Proposed Change Conflicts
with Other Requirements 152
5.8.3.3 Impact on Business Analysis 152
5.8.3.4 Impact on Project Management 153
5.8.3.5 Recommending a Course of Action 154
5.8.4 Controlling Changes Related to Defects 155
6. SOLUTION EVALUATION 157
6.1 Overview of this Section 157
6.2 Purpose of Solution Evaluation 157
6.3 Recommended Mindset for Evaluation 158
6.3.1 Evaluate Early and Often 158
6.3.2 Treat Requirements Analysis, Traceability, Testing, and Evaluation
as Complementary Activities 158
6.3.3 Evaluate with the Context of Usage and Value in Mind 159
6.3.4 Confirm Expected Values for Software Solutions 159
6.4 Plan for Evaluation of the Solution 160
6.5 Determine What to Evaluate 161
6.5.1 Consider the Business Goals and Objectives 162
6.5.2 Consider Key Performance Indicators 162
6.5.3 Consider Additional Evaluation Metrics and Evaluation
Acceptance Criteria 162
6.5.3.1 Project Metrics as Input to the Evaluation of the Solution 162
6.5.3.2 Customer Metrics 163
6.5.3.3 Sales and Marketing Metrics 163
6.5.3.4 Operational Metrics and Assessments 163
6.5.3.5 Functionality 164
6.5.4 Confirm that the Organization Can Continue with Evaluation 164
6.6 When and How to Validate Solution Results 164
6.6.1 Surveys and Focus Croups 165
6.6.2 Results from Exploratory Testing and User Acceptance Testing 165
6.6.3 Results from Day-in-the-Life (DITL) Testing 166
6.6.4 Results from Integration Testing 166
6.6.5 Expected vs. Actual Results for Functionality 166
6.6.6 Expected vs. Actual Results for Nonfunctional Requirements 167
6.6.7 Outcome Measurements and Financial Calculation of Benefits 167
6.7 Evaluate Acceptance Criteria and Address Defects 169
6.7.1 Comparison of Expected vs. Actual Results 169
6.7.2 Examine Tolerance Ranges and Exact Numbers 169
6.7.3 Log and Address Defects 169
6.8 Facilitate the Go/No-Go Decision 170
6.9 Obtain Signoff of the Solution 171
6.10 Evaluate the Long-Term Performance of the Solution 171
6.10.1 Determine Metrics 172
6.10.2 Obtain Metrics/Measure Performance 172
6.10.3 Analyze Results 172
6.10.4 Assess Limitations of the Solution and Organization 173
6.10.5 Recommend Approach to Improve Solution Performance 173
6.11 Solution Replacement/Phase out 174
APPENDIX X1 177
APPENDIX X2 179
GLOSSARY 183
INDEX 199
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